The rise of Nollywood… 

Nollywood? Did you mean Hollywood? Many individuals may question what Nollywood is or if it even exists. Nollywood is Nigeria’s film industry which was established in the 1990’s derived from the ‘Yoruba’ ethnic Nigerian group Travelling Theatres. The Nigerian film industry has produced a phenomenal amount of films over its time. It is identified as the third largest film industry in the world competing with film industry giants Hollywood and Bollywood.

Image- Google Images

The Nigerian film industry is recognised as the third largest film industry globally and is estimated that 30-50 movies are produced per week, closely behind Bollywood.  They are classified higher on the production spectrum in comparison to Hollywood. The Nigerian film industries revenue does not compare to Bollywood or Hollywood’s extensive revenue. However they still generate a significant $590 million annually for their commercially savvy movies. Fortune Entertainment stated “In 2014, the Nigerian government released data for the first time showing Nollywood is a $3.3 billion sector, with 1844 movies produced in 2013 alone.”  The Nigerian film industry however does not adopt the cinematic experience for their films, they are made direct into a video not movie for theatre.

Not only is Nollywood significantly assisting and increasing the film Industry it is also undoubtedly creating jobs throughout Nigeria. As a country which relies mainly on agriculture for a living it is identified that over a million people are employed within the film industry increasing and benefiting the overall economy in Nigeria. The African Renewal online article stated that Mr. Njoku Africa’s largest distributor of Nigerian movies “Currently  has 71 employees in Lagos, London and New York, and often boasts that “These people are working for us in a country with 50% unemployment.” Although there remains huge concerns of insufficient jobs for the growing youth population, the job industry within Nigeria has grown immensely as a result of the success of the film industry.

So what makes Nollywood the third largest film industry? With a budget of $20,000 per movie and only 50,000 physical copies sold for an average film, no film previews or no  mediated experience through cinema chains making it remain somewhat localised. What is it about these films that are generating it to be such a large success? Nigerian film producer and financier Yewande Sadiku states “Nollywood’s popularity across Africa and the diaspora certainly demonstrates the capacity of the films to travel.”

University of Alberta’s ‘Spectatorship, Audience and the Sites of Consumption’ states, “Nollywood is commercially-savvy. It values the entertainment of its clientele.” Despite the production of the Nollywood films being commercially- savvy, there are several issues and concerns regarding Nollywood films. Piracy is the foremost leading concern in Nigeria and throughout Africa. As Nigerian films are transported to DVD and are not involved in the trade of films or having national or transitional companies involved, increases the risks of piracy occurring. The World Bank estimates that for every legitimate copy sold, nine others are pirated. “In terms of exports, these movies are purchased and watched across the world in countries such as African countries, Europe, USA and the Caribbean, and almost all exports are identified as pirated copies.” This piracy issue needs to be resolved urgently as little to none of the returns go to the filmmakers nor the Nigerian government. This in turn will impact significantly on the  future for Nollywood as a result, no return on their investments.

“The focus is to take this popular movie industry, digitize it, and put the right framework around it to capture the proper value.” Founder Jason Njoku states a specific way in which this issue can be improved for Nollywood.

Image- Google images (Nigerian film setting)


Image – Google Images (Nigerian film setting)












  1. Africa Renewal Online 2013, Nigeria’s film industry: a potential gold mine?, Africa Renewal Online viewed 18 August 2017, <’s-film-industry-potential-gold-mine&gt;
  2. Okome, O 2007, ‘Nollywood: Spectatorship, Audience and the Sites of Consumption’, University of Alberta, vol. 3, no. 2, 1-21.
  3. Fortune Entertainment 2015, ‘Meet Nollywood: The second largest movie industry in the world’, Fortune Entertainment viewed 17 August 2017, <;

Parochialism- Australians being labelled as too parochial…

International education is depicted as Australians fourth largest export industry.  International education is not only business related, it creates an educational experience for students to travel on a global scale, to pursue further education. It is not only an educational experience but a social experience for students. Students have the potential to interact with the intercultural experience to gain greater and deeper knowledge. However, Marginson states “international education is not the rich intercultural experience it could be.” (2012)

International education encounters which occur on a global scale are hardly recognised. This creates positive and negative implications and ramifications for both student and the business component of intercultural education within Australia.Over 80% of our international students from Asia and therefore the student participation must keep developing and evolving. Improving the interactions between international students and local students will see a significant increase in language proficiency diminishing language barriers. This will also increase cultural diversity within Australia.

Margins states that these international encounters will continue because Australians are too parochial. “Australians are often too parochial, trapped within an Australian-centred view of a diverse and complex world.” (2012) Parochialism is the restricted, narrow-mindness outlook or perspective whereby an individual portrays a egocentric attitude or perspective. Australians do not find themselves superior, they just tend to be culturally isolated by choice. This in turn generates us to be seen as parochial. Not only are we culturally isolated Australia is also geographically isolated. This impacts on our somewhat self-centred parochial view. Marginson depicts “Most international students want closer interaction with local students, and are prepared to take risks to achieve this. However, most local students are not interested.” (2012) Australians adapting the parochial view has become deeply entrenched. This needs to be resolved to ensure a rich culturally diverse experience for all students both international and local.

An effective example of parochialism in Australian society is identified through the media coverage of the Olympic Games. Australians are identified to be parochial because we have a vexation on all things Australian, whether positive or negative. If their are no Australian athletes competing in a specific event, their will be no media coverage of the event. The coverage appears to be one-sided and explicitly indicates and conveys the Australian parochial view and perspective. This can also be identified through Australian media broadening their news coverage overseas to leading countries such as America. This has lead to homogenisation as Australia predominately focuses on following in the footsteps of the  United States instead of other countries.

Marginson suggests “Many international students cross borders to become different, they want to change themselves in the country of education.” (2012) However if Australians

do not change their mindset and willingness to interact with international students will it lead to international students eventually not wanting to emulate us? Many concluding reasons behind Australia being classified as a parochial country, enriching the intercultural experience will enhance both the cultural and political aspects of parochialism. As a country, in order to allow for a positive intercultural experience we need to modify our perspectives and become more culturally accepting.

If we can’t find solutions to interacting with international students how are we going to deal with a international workforce.


  1. Marginson, S 2012, ‘Morphing a Profit-Making Business into an Intercultural Experience. International Education as Self-Formation’.
  2. Chisholm, A 2013, ‘Parochial Australia needs to take its blinkers off’, SBS News, 26 August <;.

The distinguished utopian and dystopian views influenced by globalisation…

What is globalisation and what effects does it have on a macro scale? As stated from O’Shaughnessy, globalisation is referred to as an international community influenced by technological development and economic, political and military interests (O’Shaughnessy and Stadler, 458). It is seen to be the influence and emergence of westernised cultural values and norms throughout non-westernised countries. Although when we predominantly focus on the effects it has had on a macro/ international scale, distinguished utopian and dystopian views are identified.

9967099.pngThe overall process of globalisation has created two dissimilar views. The utopian perspective can be identified as aiming for a state in which everything is perfect.This perspective is the idealistic view.  This idealistic view believes that globalisation is positive as it increases unity among individuals and cultures on a international. This viewpoint can be identified throughMarshall McLuhan’s phrase, ‘The global village’. O’Shaughnessy and Stadler identify the ‘global village’ as ” An image of a world in which media transcend the national state in democratising process that gives everyones voice a chance to be heard and enables information to freely shared.”(O’Shaughnessy and Stadler, 459).

Through modern examples of globalisation such as technology manyindividuals attracttowards the utopian view of globalisation, as they believe globalisation has a positive impact on a international scale increasing unity among individuals and cultures around the world.  O’Shaughnessy and Stadler explore a significant example of the utopian perspective through the media coverage of the earthquake and tsunami in Japan in 2011. This event prompt several individuals around the world to donate money to help the victims and prompted the government to provide personnel to aid and assist Japan through this horrifying world disaster. This event was bought to attention through the media coverage of the disaster. The utopian perspective explores how globalisation can create and distinguish positive changes connecting cultures and creating awareness. 

The opposite viewpoint, the dystopian perspective focuses on the negative effects in which globalisation is creating. Dystopian views are concerned with the influences globalisation is creating such as mass production. A example of this can be identified though cultural imperialism which is a distinguished dystopian view that` has been shaped throughout the process of globalisation. How one culture shapes and spreads its cultural values and ideas is identified as cultural imperialism. Although O’Shaughnessy and Stadler define cultural imperialism as “imperial domination of of the world maintained partly through the dissemination of cultural products.” They also argue that “globalisation of communication results in the domination of traditional cultures and the intrusion of western culture and values such as consumerism.”(O’Shaughnessy and Stadler, 465).

A example of this can be seen through the global phenomena of Nike. Cultural imperialism is specifically highlighted through the American sports values and products being imposed and having significant influence over the existing Chinese culture. The international brand,Nike distinguishes cultural imperialism through their subliminal advertising of the Nike brand.  Through their targeted marketing approach utilising famous Chinese famous athletic as their sponsors it creates a want and desire among the Chinese community who aspire to emulate their Chinese heres and aspire to live and follow the american dream.However this comes at a cost to the Chinese community altering and influencing their cultural mentality and values depicting cultural imperialism. 


Although where is it going to end? Are we going to become a hegemonized global village?

BCM111- Week 2

Zo xo


  1. O’Shaughnessy, M 2012, ‘Globalisation’ in Media and Society, 5th ed, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Vic. pp.458-471.
  2. Nike case study, Imperialism Today – Weebly, weblog post, viewed 4 August 2017,<—case-study.html&gt;

Persona or Persona’s…

Take one mask off and put another on… the question lingering is whether we show  different persona’s and personalities online and offline. Many may argue we do as we project a certain mask through social media platforms to the global community, specifically projecting what we want others to see. However this may not be our real-world persona.

William James, an american philosopher and psychologist once suggested “We have as many personalities as the number of situations we are in. Although our digital identity may be fragmented, it seems clear that our various online personas are all digital breadcrumbs of the same persona; different symptoms of our same core self.”


As masks are a ready made identity they have played an important role throughout society and still continue to nowadays. Look back 1000 years when masks were used  for many different reasons such as films, theatre performances and public events conveying a specific persona to the audience much like that of today. However masks were seen as a item in which an actor would wear within a play to disguise their true selves and create a different persona to the audience. For example Ancient Greek Theatre masks were used to distinguish different types of roles, stories and characters. Flashing forward to nowadays masks are still prominent throughout movies and theatres for very similar reasoning although ‘masks’ can be identified predominately through online mediums. Take a look at the movie ‘The mask’ a movie which depicted two different persona’s through the use of a mask.

Masks enable and allow us to be our true selves, another example can be identified through the rise of recognising individuals as cos-players. Their costumes represent and portray a ready made identity of a specific character. The rise of cos-players throughout societies has depicted the contemporary notion of persona’s and the versatility of them as they are regularly being alternated to adapt to a forever changing and advancing society.

Take one look at this iconic character who has now generated a new persona within society.


Here’s a go of my first youtube video, on the different persona’s of the Kardashians. Sorry about the picture quality i don’t know what went wrong..!

And.. there you have it the last blog post for BCM112, catch you on the flip side, I’m out!


-Zo xo

Locked Appliances vs Generative Platforms…?

Generative open platforms and closed locked appliances, both diverse with two distinctively different driving philosophies. The incline of the ‘closed locked’ appliance such as the apple iPhone and the generative open platform approach of Twitter has generated questioning on the effectiveness of both approaches in the eyes of consumers.


The driving device philosophy of apple, is to create a preprogrammed device in which individuals can not change, nor interact with the hardware or operating systems. Apple has generated a fully centralised network approach in which they insist to create among the consumers. This approach can be identified through Apple’s ‘Wall garden of apps’ the apple store in which is a curated experience. Apple has complete control over the platform, the content and your possible choices,  limiting users access…

Lets just take one look back at what the primary way of adding and integrating music to the iPod was in 2001. Apple made users go through the process of iTunes to download music, and many may ask why in this generation??? Think about it… it’s all about CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL. Or even just think about how every few years Apple will bring out a new device which supersedes recent devices rapidly, making us to upgrade to the next ‘big trend.’

Apple holds it’s control through these changes by implementing small changes on the devices. Think back to the change and advancement from the iPhone 4 to the iPhone 5 in which saw the modification of the size of the charging port on both devices. Shortly after the iPhone 4 was dead in the eyes of the consumers. These devices are restrained to the maker (Apple) in which are designed for pure consumption.

Gif- Giphy

On the other hand generative platforms have a diverse driving mechanism as they allow for innovation and unlimited freedom. Just take one look at Twitter in which shifted from a locked platform to a generative as a result of individuals creating content and innovations then sharing it to the rest of the world through this particular medium. The use of a generative open platform creates a user empowering philosophy allowing for individuals to foster their creativity. Take a look at this ted talk from Evan Williams who states how generative open platforms can lead to creativity and innovations as a result of freedom and control.

Although the overall question consumers are left pondering is which philosophy is really empowering users? Locked appliances or generative platforms.


Zo xo


Transmedia Storytelling!

Henry Jenkins defined transmedia storytelling as, “Transmedia storytelling is the ideal aesthetic form for an era of collective intelligence.” However simplifying his definition we can articulate and define transmedia storytelling as the art of conveying messages, themes or storylines to the audience across multiple media platforms. The scattering of one story over multiple channels. Here is a video explaining and clarify transmedia storytelling.

Transforming from a generation where individuals immersed themselves in one interface a ‘pre packaged’ closed of medium such as TV with one beginning and one end. Now-days advancing to a technologically society where stories are not tied to one channel has generated the incline of transmedia stories across multiple channels and platforms. The multiple interfaces within society today has generated a immersive and interconnected world stemmed from rich storylines. The endless storyline with no closed beginning and end has seen the potential of a storyline to start in one medium and flow to another creating a new kind of narrative leading to an array of products across multiple platforms. This has generated individuals to flow and immerse themselves in multiple media platforms at once. A example of transmedia narrative is Avatar. 


Film: Avatar first began as a film in cinemas in 2009 being the first 3D film.

Books: After the film was released, the film was then repurposed to generate the publications of several different books. One of the books in which was released was called ‘The movie scrap book’ which was based around the biological and social setting of  the fictional Avatar world.

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Comic Books: Following the film was the creation of a comic book series which was released in 2015.


Gaming: Avatar games became available on consoles such as Xbox 360, Playstation 3, Wii, Nintendo and on online browser games.


Merchandise: Merchandise such as action figures and toys of characters from the film were distributed with the McDonalds happy meals. Backpacks, cups, clothing and also limited edition Avatar stamps for mailing services were other elements of their merchandise.


Theme Park: Disney has also developed an Avatar theme park in America which will be open in the American summer of 2017.

Screen Shot 2017-05-08 at 12.07.17 pm.png
Avatar Theme Park

Although Avatar was not a huge transmedia storytelling success, it has however created ‘Fan fiction’ which has assisted individuals to generate their own platform to create further fiction together, to suit their individual desires.


The transformation of copyright..

From a generation where the notion of owning an idea as obscured, where creators had no claim on their intellectual work. Producing it to be modified or sold by other creators. To nowadays with the strict rules and regulations surrounding copyright. The implementation of laws(1) such as the Statute of Queen Anne (1710) to the Berene Convention giphy-1.gif(1886) advancing to the current US copyright law, stating a monopoly right for 70 years after the author’s death. These laws have been enforced  to prevent and minimise copyright from occuring within societies.

Although many would argue that the copyright laws are too rigid. The real question lies are they? Here’s a little insight into the brutality of the current law. Khloe Kardashian(2) has been sued for $200,750 by a paparazzi agency for posting a picture of herself on her own social media platform. What has this world come to?? The paparazzi agency stated that she took a photograph they snapped of her while she was out in pubic and posted it to her own social media ac200-3.gifcount without permission or consent. However does she have to be granted permission to post a photo of herself which was snapped without her permission, i’ll leave that up to you to decide. Although with large corporations and industries controlling ideas and content now days it generates us to re-evaluate whether our ideas are ours any longer.

However ill leave you to ponder on this thought, without copyright we would not have fairytales or memes..

Zo x